December 15, 2017

REFUEL AMERICA CAMPAIGN PT. 3 – FUTURE FUEL HERE NOW! / THE ALCOHOL WARS: Make Your Own Fuel: How To Make Ethanol(Alcohol) And Methanol(Wood Alcohol) Fuels “History Of Fuel Alcohol”

alcohol fuel2

Timeline of Alcohol Fuel (Ethanol-Ethyl Alcohol)

* In 1908, the Ford Model T is introduced. Early models had adjustable carburetors to run on ethanol with gasoline as an option.

* In 1909, the U.S. Geological Survey reports: “In regard to general cleanliness, such as absence of smoke and disagreeable odors, alcohol has many advantages over gasoline or kerosene as a fuel… The exhaust from an alcohol engine is never clouded with a black or grayish smoke.” Overall, alcohol was “a more ideal fuel than gasoline.”

* In 1917 Alexander Graham Bell says: “Alcohol makes a beautiful, clean and efficient fuel… Alcohol can be manufactured from corn stalks, and in fact from almost any vegetable matter capable of fermentation… We need never fear the exhaustion of our present fuel supplies so long as we can produce an annual crop of alcohol to any extent desired.”

* In 1925, Henry Ford tells the New York Times that ethyl alcohol is “the fuel of the future” which “is going to come from fruit like that sumach out by the road, or from apples, weeds, sawdust — almost anything. There is fuel in every bit of vegetable matter that can be fermented. There’s enough alcohol in one year’s yield of an acre of potatoes to drive the machinery necessary to cultivate the fields for a hundred years.”

* In 1921, leaded gasoline is developed at the General Motors research laboratories in Dayton, Ohio. GM researcher Thomas Midgley still maintains: “The most direct route which we now know for converting energy from its source, the sun, into a material that is suitable for use in an internal combustion motor is through vegetation to alcohol… It now appears that alcohol is the only liquid from a direct vegetable source that combines relative cheapness with suitability (although other sources might be found)… Alcohol will stand very high initial compressions without knocking, and at high compressions is smooth and highly satisfactory.”

Any idiot with a still can make Fuel Alcohol at home, and in those days, many did. And ethanol, can’t be patented; it offers no corporate profits. Moreover, oil companies hate it! – Jamie Lincoln Kitman

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alcohol make fuel drum

Make Your Own Fuel! Alcohol Fuel Basics

It takes some mechanical aptitude, but you can make your own fuel by fermenting appropriate feed stocks into 96 proof alcohol.
By Richard Freudenberger
April/May 2010

What if there were a fuel that was affordable, renewable, and produced right in your own community? If you’d lived 100 years ago, you would have known all about such a fuel. It was called alcohol, and it was a clean-burning fluid generally sold as lamp fuel. Only recently have we taken a renewed look at alcohol fuel — now more commonly known as ethanol — and its potential as a domestically sourced fuel for transportation.

I’m not here to tell you about the agri-industrial agenda to produce ethanol on a massive scale. What I am going to tell you is how to make your own fuel to use in your vehicle or in other gas engines, such as a motorcycle, tiller, or lawn tractor. You can modify these gas engines to run on straight alcohol (more on engine modifications in “Run Your Car on Ethanol,” below).

If it’s produced on a small-scale, ethanol can be made from grain you grow yourself — or from a wide range of other local and sustainable feedstocks including food waste and crop culls. With a little specialized equipment and know-how, you can turn these materials into alcohol fuel, and it will cost less than you would pay at the pump for gasoline or commercially produced ethanol.

You can produce your own ethanol for an ongoing cost of less than $2 per gallon. If you grow your own corn, you can distill more than 300 gallons of ethanol from 1 acre of corn. If you drive less than 10,000 miles per year, you could produce all your own fuel from 2 acres of corn — and, granted, a lot of labor. In short, when I talk about ethanol, I’m talking about do-it-yourself fuel, and practicing local self-reliance on an individual and community scale.

Why Choose Alcohol Fuel?

One of the strongest arguments for ethanol fuel is that we can make it ourselves, with no dependence on foreign resources. In 1925, Henry Ford told a New York Times reporter that “There’s enough alcohol in one year’s yield of an acre of potatoes to drive the machinery necessary to cultivate the fields for a hundred years.” This self-made businessman recognized the value of the American farm, and more specifically, the importance of domestically sourced materials. He envisioned farms across the country providing the crops needed to make both fuel and food.

Another reason ethanol is such an attractive fuel option is that it’s basically liquid energy. Ethanol is a clear liquid that packs a lot of energy into a usable, storable, and transportable form — only petroleum can compete with ethanol on an energy-per-volume basis. But ethanol has an added benefit in that it’s oxygenated, meaning it has oxygen in its molecular structure, which results in a cleaner burn. Compared to gasoline, ethanol emits about 20 percent less  hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide.

SOURCE: Read more: http://www.motherearthnews.com/renewable-energy/make-your-own-fuel-zmaz10amzraw.aspx#ixzz3EFm1lfcb

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alcohol ethyl

“Regardless of the inherent differences between gasoline and alcohol, though, the fact is that alcohols make ideal motor fuels. The first practical internal combustion engine – patented by Nikolaus Otto in 1877 – ran on alcohol (gasoline had not been “discovered” yet), and the Model A Ford, produced from 1928 to 1931, was designed to burn a variety of fuels … alcohol being one of them.

In addition, Studebaker trucks built for export in the 1930’s (and various domestic tractors sold both in the U.S. and abroad) were offered with either gasoline or alcohol fuel systems. (Indeed, at the start of the “motorized era”, alcohol was just as common as – if not more so than – fossil fuels. But as time went on, the petroleum industry – which was organized and thus more powerful than the independent, often farm-based alcohol producers – lobbied successfully for the wholesale use of “superior” gasoline fuels.

Strangely enough, in areas where petroleum had to be exclusively imported, or during time of war when gasoline supplies were rationed, alcohol suddenly became an excellent motor fuel again … and was touted as such by the petroleum distributors who were selling it!)

Be that as it may, alcohol has characteristics that make it a natural engine fuel: It has a high “octane” rating, which prevents engine detonation (knock) under load, it burns clean … so clean, in fact, that not only are noxious emissions drastically reduced, but the internal parts of the engine are purged of carbon and gum deposits … which, of course, do not build up as long as alcohol is used as fuel, an alcohol burning engine tends to run cooler than its gasoline-powered counterpart, thus extending engine life and reducing the chance of overheating.”

– The Mother Earth News, 1980: Alcohol as an Engine Fuel
http://journeytoforever.org/biofuel_library/ethanol_motherearth/me1.html –

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methanol-on-blue-background

Methanol2 CEC

HOW TO MAKE WOOD ALCOHOL (METHYL ALCOHOL/METHANOL FUEL)

This is the easiest Alcohol Fuel to make. It requires only (3) Steps!

1) Add Wood, Wood Chips, Grass, Sawdust or any cellulose from trees or plants to Boiler/Distiller/
2) Heat to 78.3 degrees Celsius(172.94 Fahrenheit), some methods advocate between 178-179 Degrees Fahrenheit.
3) Collect distilled vapor into suitable container.
That’s it. Simple as pie!

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Instructions
Step 1

Obtain a heat source for your distilling. This could be a fire pit or a propane or natural gas burner. You can also use an electric burner.

Step 2
Mount a large pot over the temperature source. Put a thermometer in the pot to track the temperature of the wood and water mixture. The thermometer will be important for making sure the temperature of the mixture stays at the right level throughout the distillation.

Step 3
Obtain a condenser tube and drill a hole in the lid of your pot that is sized to the tube. A condenser tube is a metal tube that the alcohol travels through as it evaporates. Attach the condenser tube to your lid.

Step 4
Attach the other end of your condenser to an additional pot or bucket that will serve as your holding container. Ensure that this container is covered to prevent the loss of alcohol.

Step 5
Place your wood shavings in to the pot and fill with water. Heat it until you reach 78.3 degrees Celsius and keep it at that temperature. As the wood breaks down, it will release alcohol into the condenser tube and slowly drip down into your holding container. You can distill the alcohol again to improve its purity.

http://www.ehow.com/how_7762993_make-wood-alcohol-through-distillation.html

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Here is another method that adds sulphuric acid to help the wood break down faster, but is not required.

Wood alcohol is made from sawdust or cellulose from trees or plants. The sawdust is combined with sulphuric acid to create a fermenting process to make the wood alcohol. You can find more information here: http://www.journeytoforever.org/biofuel_library/wood_alcohol.html

wood-alcohol

An additional warning is merited. Methanol (Methyl Alcohol) isn’t just “extremely flammible,” it’s also highly toxic to humans and was intentionally added BY THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT to prohibition-era beverages SPECIFICALLY TO KILL PEOPLE. That sounded totally surreal when I heard it, but apparently it’s true–read all about it:

http://www.slate.com/articles/health_and_science/medical_examiner/2010/02/the_chemists_war.single.html

Per Wikipedia:

Methanol has a high toxicity in humans. If as little as 10 mL of pure methanol is ingested, for example, it can break down into formic acid, which can cause permanent blindness by destruction of the optic nerve, and 30 mL is potentially fatal, although the median lethal dose is typically 100 mL (4 fl oz) (i.e. 1–2 mL/kg body weight of pure methanol). Reference dose for methanol is 0.5 mg/kg/day. Toxic effects take hours to start, and effective antidotes can often prevent permanent damage. Because of its similarities in both appearance and odor to ethanol (the alcohol in beverages), it is difficult to differentiate between the two
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[ The Chemist’s War:The little-told story of how the U.S. government poisoned alcohol during Prohibition with deadly consequences. ]

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alcohol fue l3

How to Make Ethanol Fuel

Ethanol is an alternative to gasoline (petrol). The use of ethanol has been demonstrated to reduce greenhouse emissions slightly as compared to gasoline (petrol), although the price typically ends up being higher in the end. By using a combination of everyday food supplies and a few pieces of equipment, you can make your own ethanol fuel. The following is a guide on how to make ethanol fuel.

STEPS:

STEP 1) Obtain legal authorization to produce ethanol.

If you intend to produce ethanol fuel in the United States, complete and submit the following form to the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB): http://www.ttb.gov/forms/f511074.pdf

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If you intend to produce ethanol fuel elsewhere, request proper instructions on how to legally produce ethanol fuel from the government agency that deals with such issues in your area.

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Confirm that you are legally authorized to produce ethanol fuel before continuing.

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STEP 2: Add fruit to a barrel.

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Obtain throwaway fruit from your local grocer or another source. Fruit that is rotten may be used in lieu of edible food.

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Add fruit until the barrel is approximately 1/3 full. It is important to not exceed this amount, as the barrel may overflow during fermentation.

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STEP 3: Mash the fruit with a pole or other blunt object.

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STEP 4) Add water and yeast to the barrel.

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Although standard yeast can be used, it is best to use ethanol tolerant yeast from a wine-making supply store.

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Add 1 to 2 packets to the barrel.

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STEP 5) Cover the barrel.

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STEP 6) Monitor the sugar content of the barrel.

Check the sugar content daily with a hydrometer.

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Over the course of approximately 10 days, the sugar content should reduce gradually until none is left.

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STEP 7) Distill the mixture by using a reflux still, this can be purchased on the Internet.

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Do this immediately after the sugar is gone from the mixture. Not doing so could allow materials to develop that could ruin your engine.

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Put the mixture into a reflux still.

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Follow the manufacturer’s instructions to complete the distillation process

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STEP 8) Filter the mixture.

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The ethanol that you are left with after the distillation process will still have a minor impurity of water inside of it. To remove this water, you need to use a specialized fuel filter that can filter the water out. These filters are made out of specially-designed fabrics that allow ethanol molecules to pass through while trapping the water.

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STEP 9) Add gasoline (petrol) to the ethanol (optional).

Depending on your engine type and regulations that apply to ethanol production in your area, add the required amount of gasoline (petrol) to the mixture. A fuel that is commonly produced is E85, which is 85 percent ethanol and 15 percent gasoline (petrol).

Make-Ethanol-Fuel-Step-13Bullet1

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Tips
Ethanol fuel can be used in vehicles, lawnmower, chainsaws, and many other devices that use gasoline (petrol). Before using it, have any necessary alterations made to the vehicle or device to allow it to operate on ethanol.

Warnings
Be sure to add the legally required mixture of gasoline (petrol) to the mixture. Pure ethanol is very similar to moonshine (alcohol) and could get you in significant legal trouble if it is not made properly.

Sources and Citations
http://www.scienceinafrica.co.za/2006/april/lawnmower.htm
http://www.popularmechanics.com/cars/alternative-fuel/4277630
[1]
http://greenliving.lovetoknow.com/How_to_Make_Ethanol
http://www.edmunds.com/fuel-economy/e85-vs-gasoline-comparison-test.html
http://thekneeslider.com/archives/2008/05/09/efuel100-microfueler-home-ethanol-micro-refinery/

wikihow.com/Make-Ethanol-Fuel

renewable-energy/make-your-own-fuel

ehow.com/how_7762993_make-wood-alcohol-through-distillation

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How Ethanol Is Made Animated Feature

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ethyl fuel

How Did Lead Get Into Our Gasoline Anyway?
—By Kevin Drum| Mon Jan. 7, 2013

In my article about lead and crime, I didn’t spend any time talking about the history of lead as a gasoline additive. Why? Because the piece was already 6,000 words long and I figured that adding to its length with a history lesson would detract from the primary point I wanted to make.

Nonetheless, the history of tetraethyl lead (TEL) has lessons to teach us. Its origins as a gasoline additive began in the 1920s, when it was perfected by GM as an anti-knock compound for high-compression engines. But GM—controlled at the time by DuPont— knew perfectly well that there was already an effective anti-knock additive available: ethanol. Motor fuel made up of about 80% gasoline and 20% ethanol worked beautifully. In “The Secret History of Lead,” published in 2000 in The Nation, Jamie Lincoln Kitman explains what happened next:

From the corporation’s perspective, however, the problems with ethyl alcohol were ultimately insurmountable and rather basic. GM couldn’t dictate an infrastructure that could supply ethanol in the volumes that might be required. Equally troubling, any idiot with a still could make it at home, and in those days, many did. And ethanol, unlike TEL, couldn’t be patented; it offered no profits for GM. Moreover, the oil companies hated it, a powerful disincentive for the fledgling GM, which was loath to jeopardize relations with these mighty power brokers. Surely the du Pont family’s growing interest in oil and oil fields, as it branched out from its gunpowder roots into the oil-dependent chemical business, weighed on many GM directors’ minds.

In March 1922, Pierre du Pont wrote to his brother Irénée du Pont, Du Pont company chairman, that TEL is “a colorless liquid of sweetish odor, very poisonous if absorbed through the skin, resulting in lead poisoning almost immediately.” This statement of early factual knowledge of TEL’s supreme deadliness is noteworthy, for it is knowledge that will be denied repeatedly by the principals in coming years as well as in the Ethyl Corporation’s authorized history, released almost sixty years later. Underscoring the deep and implicit coziness between GM and Du Pont at this time, Pierre informed Irénée about TEL before GM had even filed its patent application for it.

Read the whole thing for much, much more. David Roberts goes a step further, lamenting that we repeat the mistakes we made with lead over and over with other compounds:

We start using something before we understand whether it’s safe. We begin to discover it’s not safe. Industry obscures the science and viciously battles off regulation for as long as possible, forecasting economic doom. Lots of people get sick and die while they do so. Finally some regulations are put in place. The costs of complying turn out to be lower than anyone predicted. The benefits turn out to be much greater than anyone predicted. The pollutant turns out to be more harmful than originally thought. Despite all of the above, industry continues battling efforts to further reduce the pollutant, while claiming credit for the benefits of reducing it as much as they were forced to.

Over and over and over, this story plays out. Yet with each new pollution fight, it’s as though we’ve never had all the previous ones. (See: chlorofluorocarbons, mercury, smog, phthalates, etc.)

This is especially true of compounds like lead, that primarily affect children. If you test lead at moderate levels on adults, you can massage the data pretty easily to show only mild effects. If you test on children over the course of a single year, you can also massage the data to show only mild effects. The problem is that it takes years for the effects of lead on brain development to show up. The kind of research it takes to demonstrate these effects is expensive, and industry obviously has no incentive to fund it. So it doesn’t get done.

In the end, of course, the research was eventually done. And it turned out that as more research was done, lead’s horrors multiplied. The most recent research, which links lead with aggression and violent crime, is merely the latest in a long string of ill effects that can be laid at lead’s doorstep.

SOURCE: http://www.motherjones.com/kevin-drum/2013/01/how-did-lead-get-our-gasoline-anyway

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Timeline of Alcohol Fuel
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Ethanol, an alcohol fuel, is an important fuel for the operation of internal combustion engines that are used in cars, trucks, and other kinds of machinery.

Ethanol was first isolated from wine in approximately 1100 and was found to burn shortly thereafter. These early solutions distilled from wine-salt mixtures were referred to as aqua ardens (burning water) or aqua flamens (flaming water) and had such low alcohol content that they burned without producing noticeable heat. By the 13th century, the development of the cooling coil allowed the isolation of nearly pure ethanol by distillation.[1]
Ethanol has been used for lamp oil and cooking, along with plant and animal oils.[2] Small alcohol stoves (also called “spirit lamps”) were commonly used by travelers in the 17th century to warm food and themselves.
Before the American Civil War many farmers in the USA had an alcohol still to turn crop waste into free lamp oil and stove fuel for the farmers’ family use. Conflict over taxation was not unusual; one example was the Whiskey Rebellion in 1791.

*In 1826, Samuel Morey uses alcohol in the first American internal combustion engine prototype.[3]

* In the 1830s, alcohol blends had replaced increasingly expensive whale oil in most parts of the country. It “easily took the lead as the illuminant” because it was “a decided improvement on other oils then in use.” [4]

* By 1860, thousands of distilleries churned out at least 90 million US gallons (340,000 m3) of alcohol per year for lighting. Camphene / alcohol blends (at $.50 per gallon) were cheaper than whale oil ($1.30 to $2.50 per gallon) and lard oil (90 cents per gallon). It was about the same price as coal oil, which was the product first marketed as “kerosene.” [5]

* In 1860, German inventor Nikolaus Otto uses ethyl alcohol as a fuel in an early internal combustion engine.[6]
In 1862 and 1864, a tax on alcohol was passed in the U.S. to pay for the Civil War, increasing the price of ethanol to over $2.00 per gallon. A new product from petroleum, called kerosene, is taxed at 10 cents a gallon.[7]
In the 19th century, spirit lamps, Pigeon lamps and others used a variety of blends of alcohol and oils in Europe. Alcohol powered not only automobiles and farm machinery but also a wide variety of lamps, stoves, heaters, laundry irons, hair curlers, coffee roasters and every conceivable household appliance. By one estimate, some 95,000 alcohol fueled stoves and 37,000 spirit lamps had been manufactured in Germany by 1902.[8]

* By the 1890s, alcohol-fueled engines are starting to be used in farm machinery in Europe, making countries more fuel independent. Research at the Experimental Mechanical Laboratory of Paris and at the Deutsche Landwirtschaftliche Gesellschaft in Berlin in the 1890s helped pave the way for expanded use of alcohol fuel.

* By 1896, horseless carriages (cars) were showing up on roads in Europe and the United States. Because gasoline is so cheap and abundant, and also because ethanol is taxed at a high level, early US automobiles are adapted to gasoline from the beginning. Racing cars, on the other hand, usually used ethanol (and other alcohols) because more power could be developed in a smaller, lighter engine. Charles Edgar Duryea builds the first U.S. gasoline powered car but is aware of Samuel Morey’s ethanol fueled experimental car of 1826. Henry Ford’s first car, the Quadracycle, is also built that year. The car runs on gasoline, but Ford is aware of experiments with ethanol in Germany, and subsequently backs the lifting of the U.S. tax on industrial uses of ethanol.
In 1899, the German government taxed petroleum imports and subsidized domestic ethanol. Kaiser Wilhelm II “was enraged at the Oil Trust of his country, and offered prizes to his subjects and cash assistance … to adapt [alcohol] to use in the industries.”[9]

* In 1901, the French ministry of agriculture offered prizes for the best alcohol-fueled engines and household appliances.

* In 1902, the Paris alcohol fuel exposition exhibited alcohol powered cars, farm machinery, lamps, stoves, heaters, laundry irons, hair curlers, coffee roasters, and every conceivable household appliance and agricultural engine powered by alcohol.[10] This exhibit traveled widely through Europe and was featured at the 1907 Jamestown Virginia tricentennial celebrations.

* In 1906, the Free Alcohol bill is passed. The USA repeals the alcohol tax under Teddy Roosevelt. At 14 cents per US gallon, corn ethanol was cheaper than gasoline at 22 cents per US gallon. Bills pass that exempt farm stills from government control. In backing the bill, U.S. President Teddy Roosevelt says: “The Standard Oil Company has, largely by unfair or unlawful methods, crushed out home competition… It is highly desirable that an element of competition should be introduced by the passage of some such law as that which has already passed in the House, putting alcohol used in the arts and manufacturers upon the [tax] free list.” [11]
Starting in 1901, the discovery of new oil fields in Texas causes the price of gasoline to drop to between 18 and 22 cents per US gallon by 1906, undercutting farm ethanol markets

* In 1908, the Ford Model T is introduced. Early models had adjustable carburetors to run on ethanol with gasoline as an option.[12][13]
In 1909, the U.S. Geological Survey reports: “In regard to general cleanliness, such as absence of smoke and disagreeable odors, alcohol has many advantages over gasoline or kerosene as a fuel… The exhaust from an alcohol engine is never clouded with a black or grayish smoke.” Overall, alcohol was “a more ideal fuel than gasoline.” [14]

* In 1914, the Free Alcohol bill is amended again to decrease the regulatory burden and encourage alcohol fuel production in the U.S.

* In 1917 Alexander Graham Bell says: “Alcohol makes a beautiful, clean and efficient fuel… Alcohol can be manufactured from corn stalks, and in fact from almost any vegetable matter capable of fermentation… We need never fear the exhaustion of our present fuel supplies so long as we can produce an annual crop of alcohol to any extent desired.”[15]

* In 1918, Scientific American says it is “now definitely established that alcohol can be blended with gasoline to produce a suitable fuel …” [16] Another article notes that the Pasteur Institute of France found it could obtain 10 US gallons (38 L) of ethanol per ton of seaweed.[17]
In 1919, Prohibition of beverage alcohol in the U.S. leads to suggestions for more ethanol use as an anti-knock blend with gasoline.[18] Farm belt politicians are split on ethanol as a fuel. While distillers could have a new market for their alcohol, some thought that allowing any distillery to stay open would be a “bargain with the devil.”
In the 1920s and 1930s, Koolmotor, Benzalcool, Moltaco, Lattybentyl, Natelite, Alcool and Agrol are some of the gasoline-ethanol blends of fuels once found in Britain, Italy, Hungary, Sweden, South Africa, Brazil and the USA (respectively).

* In 1920, David White, chief geologist of US Geological Survey, estimates total oil remaining in the US at 6.7 billion barrels (1.07×109 m3). “In making this estimate, which included both proved reserves and resources still remaining to be discovered, White conceded that it might well be in error by as much as 25 percent.” [19]

* In 1921, leaded gasoline is developed at the General Motors research laboratories in Dayton, Ohio. GM researcher Thomas Midgley still maintains: “The most direct route which we now know for converting energy from its source, the sun, into a material that is suitable for use in an internal combustion motor is through vegetation to alcohol… It now appears that alcohol is the only liquid from a direct vegetable source that combines relative cheapness with suitability (although other sources might be found)… Alcohol will stand very high initial compressions without knocking, and at high compressions is smooth and highly satisfactory.”.[20]

* In 1921, British engineer Harry Ricardo patents racing fuels RD1 and RD2 (for Ricardo Discol) that contained methanol and ethanol, acetone and small amounts of water. These were widely used on race tracks throughout Europe and the US in the 1920s and 30s.

* In 1923 leaded gasoline it is marketed, and by 1924 GM and Standard Oil Co. form the Ethyl Corp. Ethyl claims it has “solved” the problem of engine knock, but public health scientists (such as Alice Hamilton of Harvard University) are appalled at the prospects for lead poisoning and insist that alternatives such as ethanol blends are available.[21]

* In 1923 Rolls-Royce engine designer Harry Ricardo writes: “…It is a matter of absolute necessity to find an alternative fuel. Fortunately, such a fuel is in sight in the form of alcohol; this is a vegetable product whose consumption involves no drain on the world’s storage and which, in tropical countries at all events, can ultimately be produced in quantities sufficient to meet the world’s demand, at all events at the present rate of consumption. By the use of a fuel derived from vegetation, mankind is adapting the sun’s heat to the development of motive power, as it becomes available from day to day; by using mineral fuels, he is consuming a legacy – and a limited legacy at that – of heat stored away many thousands of years ago. In the one case he is, as it were, living within his income, in the other he is squandering his capital. It is perfectly well known that alcohol is an excellent fuel, and there is little doubt but that sufficient supplies could be produced within the tropical regions of the British empire…” [22]

* In 1923, the price of alcohol from molasses was less than 20 cents per US gallon, while retail gasoline prices had reached an all-time high of 28 cents per gallon. Standard Oil experiments with a 10% alcohol, 90% gasoline blend for a few months to increase octane and stop engine knock.

* In 1923, French assembly passes the Carburant National law requiring gasoline importers to buy alcohol for 10% blends from the State Alcohol Service. The law has a far-reaching impact as many other nations, especially Brazil and other sugar-cane growing countries, were influenced to enact similar laws based on the French and German programs.[23]

*By the mid-1920s, ethyl alcohol is blended with gasoline in every industrialized nation, and some blends are showing up as experiments in the United States, but the market is dominated by leaded gasoline.
In October of 1924, a catastrophic miscalculation in the production of leaded gasoline causes at least 17 refinery deaths and many dozens of permanently debilitating injuries. GM and Standard very nearly abandon leaded gasoline, but decide to defend it, claiming (contrary to their own prior published research) that ““So far as science knows at the present time, tetraethyl lead is the only material available which can bring about these [antiknock] results.” [24]
In 1925, Henry Ford tells the New York Times that ethyl alcohol is “the fuel of the future” which “is going to come from fruit like that sumach out by the road, or from apples, weeds, sawdust — almost anything. There is fuel in every bit of vegetable matter that can be fermented. There’s enough alcohol in one year’s yield of an acre of potatoes to drive the machinery necessary to cultivate the fields for a hundred years.” [25]

* In 1926, US Public Health Service allows leaded gasoline to return to the market.

* In 1928 Harry Ricardo, National Distillers Co. and Shell Oil introduce an alcohol fuel blend in the United Kingdom called “Cleveland Discol.” The ethanol blend is a popular unleaded gasoline brand and is sold through 1968.[26]
In August 1930, the German government required all gasoline importers to buy 2.5% of the volume of their imports from the German Alcohol Monopoly, and the ratio was increased to 6% and then 10% by 1932. Estimates of alcohol used in

* 1932 vary from 44 million liters to about 175 million liters. Some 36,000 small farm alcohol stills, owned by the monopoly, were in operation at this time.[27] By 1938, Germany was producing about 267 million liters of ethanol, about two thirds from potatoes and the rest from grain, wood sulfite liquors and beets. Some 89 million liters of methanol were produced from coal, while other synthetic fuels included 550 million liters of benzene and over one billion liters of synthetic gasoline. All told, 54% of the pre-war German fuel production was derived from non-petroleum sources, of which 8% was ethanol from renewable sources [28]

* In the 1930s, the Dust bowl drought and Great Depression forced many more farmers to move to the cities looking for work, leaving their alcohol fuel stills behind. Henry Ford, a farmer himself, supported ethanol’s use over gas.

* In 1933, faced with the 25% unemployment of the Great Depression, the European concept of finding new markets for surplus farm products is widely discussed, with ethanol-gasoline blending among the most significant. Fuel blending experiments begin in Peoria, IL, Spokane WA, Lincoln, NE, and Ames, IA. Federal and state governments consider tax advantages to help ethanol production and increase employment among farmers. By 1935 the Chemurgy movement emerges, supported by farmers, Republicans, and Henry Ford. Along with ethanol, chemurgy research included the industrial development of agricultural raw materials (such as hemp, soybeans and new products from biological materials, such as hemp & soybean plastics and inks.

* In 1933, a campaign to end Prohibition in the United States emerges. Concerned about renewed interest in ethanol for fuel, the American Petroleum Institute begins a campaign[29] against ethanol blends, claiming such “will harm the petroleum industry and the automobile industry as well as state and national treasuries by reducing [oil] consumption,” the sole beneficiaries allegedly being distillers, railroads (which would transport the alcohol) and bootleggers “to whom would be opened brand new fields of fraud.”[30] Prohibition ends with the passage of the Twenty-first Amendment to the United States Constitution on December 5, 1933.

* From 1933 to 1939, various oil companies and the American Petroleum Institute argued that tax incentives for ethanol would hurt the oil industry, reduce state treasuries, and create a bootlegger’ atmosphere around fueling stations. They also claimed alcohol fuel was inferior to gasoline.[31]

* In 1937, the farm chemurgy movement finds backers for the Agrol ethanol fuel plant, created at Atchison, Kansas. For two years, ethanol blends were sold at around 2,000 service stations in the U.S. Midwest. Agrol plant managers complained of sabotage and bitter infighting by the oil industry, and the cheaper price of gasoline. Agrol sold for 17 cents per gallon, while leaded gasoline sold for 16 cents.

* In 1939, Agrol production shuts down.

* In 1942, chemists who designed the Agrol ethanol plant, especially Leo Christensen, go to work producing ethanol for aviation fuel and synthetic “Buna-S” rubber for World War II. By 1944, petroleum based synthetic rubber production lags, and three quarters of all tires, raincoats, engine gaskets and other rubber products for the war effort come from ethanol.[32]

* In 1942, a war investigating committee led by then-Senator (and future president) Harry Truman makes public evidence that the oil industry had colluded with German chemical companies, especially I.G. Farben, to prevent the development of synthetic rubber production in the United States. Standard Oil (Exxon) had entered a partnership that it described as a “full marriage” designed to “outlast the war” no matter who won.[33]

* On October 14, 1947, legendary test pilot Chuck Yeager became the first man to fly faster than Mach 1, the speed of sound. He was piloting the Bell X-1, a bullet-shaped rocket plane that was the first in a series of secret high-speed research aircraft. The X-planes came to symbolize the danger and glamour of test flying at California’s Edwards Air Force Base in the late 1940s and 50s. Originally known as the XS-1, the X-1 was powered by a Reaction Motors XLR11-RM3 rocket engine. Its four chambers each produced 1,500 pounds (6.7 kN) of thrust. At full power, the engine burned up its 600-US-gallon (2,300 L) supply of liquid oxygen and alcohol fuel in less than three minutes.

* In 1949, S.J.W. Pleeth, chemist for the Cleveland Discol company in Great Britain, writes: “The bias aroused by the use of alcohol as a motor fuel has produced [research] results that are incompatible with each other … Countries with considerable oil deposits — such as the US — or which control oil deposits of other lands — such as Holland — tend to produce reports antithetical to the use of fuels alternative to petrol; countries with little or no indigenous oil tend to produce favorable reports. The contrast … is most marked. One can scarcely avoid the conclusion that the results arrived at are those best suited to the political or economic aims of the country concerned or the industry sponsoring the research. We deplore this partisan use of science, while admitting its existence, even in the present writer.” [34]

* In 1964, a seven-car crash kills drivers Dave MacDonald and Eddie Sachs on the second lap of the Indianapolis 500, as over 150 US gallons (570 L) of gasoline burned. Johnny Rutherford, who was also involved in the crash, survived, mainly because his methanol-fueled car had not ignited. The United States Auto Club bans gasoline and switches all cars to methyl alcohol (methanol), a rule which would stay for 41 years before ending after the 2005 race.
During the Nigerian Civil War of 1967 to 1970, Engineers in the breakaway republic of Biafra resorted to powering vehicles with alcohol. Initially, alcohol was used to supplement the crude oil refining capacity which the fledgling state had under its control, but as the Soviet and UK backed Nigerian army seized the oil producing regions, and with the Nigerian embargo beginning to bite, alcohol became the dominant source of fuel for the economy.

* In 1971, the Nebraska Agricultural Products Industrial Utilization Committee (or “Gasohol” Committee) is formed to find new uses for surplus grain. The commission tests ethanol-gasoline blends in thousands of cars over millions of miles, proving that ethanol can be used as an octane-boosting additive to replace leaded gasoline.

* In 1973, Arab oil embargo creates a worldwide energy crisis, leading to intensified search for alternative energy sources.

* In 1979, President Jimmy Carter’s administration creates federal incentives for ethanol production. Federal and state subsidies for ethanol amount to about $11 billion between 1979 and 2000, as compared to about $150 billion in tax credits for the oil industry (from 1968–2000), according to the General Accounting Office.[35]

* By the mid-1980s, over 100 new corn alcohol production plants are built and over a billion US gallons of ethanol for fuel were sold per year. The ethanol program is controversial for several reasons, not the least of which was that the ethanol industry was dominated by one company – Archer Daniels Midland of Peoria, Ill.

* In 1984, the number of ethanol plants peaked at 163 in the U.S., producing 595 million US gallons (2,250,000 m3) of ethanol that year.

* In 1988, the George H.W. Bush administration proposes a cleanup of “air toxics” in gasoline, focusing on replacing benzene octane boosters with ethanol. The proposal leads to one part of the 1990 Clean Air Act.

* In the late 1980s and 1990s, an oil surplus drives gasoline prices down as low as $12 per barrel, driving most of the ethanol industry into bankruptcy.

* In 1990 and 1992, Congress passes amendments to the Clean Air Act encouraging the use of ethanol and other oxygenated fuels as replacements for benzene, toluene and xylene octane boosters. MTBE becomes the oil industry’s favorite additive, but as water pollution problems were recognized, MTBE is banned in California. Ethanol production rises to the 4-billion-US-gallon (15,000,000 m3) level.

* Between 1997 and 2002, three million U.S. cars and light trucks are produced which could run on E85, a blend of 85% ethanol with 15% gasoline. Almost no gas stations sell this fuel however.
In the early 2000s, the invasion of Iraq makes Americans aware of their dependence on foreign oil. This and worry over climate change causes leading alternative energies like biofuel, solar and wind to expand 20 to 30% yearly.

* In 2003, California is the first state to ban MTBE. Several other states start switching soon afterward. California consumes 900 million US gallons (3,400,000 m3) of ethanol a year, about a third of all the ethanol produced in the United States.

* In 2004, Crude oil prices rise by 80%. Gasoline prices rise 30% in the U.S. Diesel fuel rises almost 50%. These rises are caused by hurricane damage to oil rigs in the Gulf of Mexico, attacks on Iraqi oil pipelines, disruptions elsewhere, and rising demand for gasoline in Asia, as Asians buy more cars. Alcohol fuel prices are much closer to the price of gasoline. The ethanol industry in the USA makes 225,000 barrels (35,800 m3) per day in August, an all-time record. Some conventional oil fuel companies are investing in alcohol fuel. Oil reserves are forecast to last about 40 more years. Total use (demand) of ethanol is 3.53 billion US gallons (13,400,000 m3).

* In 2005, E85 sells for 45 cents (or 30-75 cents wholesale) less than gasoline on average in the United States. More than 4 million flexible-fuel (capable of running on E85 as well as gasoline) vehicles exist in the United States. About 400 filling stations exist in the US that sell E85 fuel, mostly in the Midwest. Gasoline prices rise as ethanol prices stay the same, due to rapidly growing ethanol supply and federal tax subsidies for ethanol. Wholesale ethanol prices drop nearly 30% between January and April, or $1.75 to $1.23 per gallon in the U.S.

* In 2006, the Indy Racing League switches to a 10% ethanol-90% methanol fuel mixture, as part of a phase-in to an all-ethanol formula in 2007. Bill Gates buys a quarter of Pacific Ethanol Inc. for $84 million.

* In 2007, United nations Food and Agriculture Organization Special Rapporteur for the Right to Food urges five-year moratorium on food based biofuels, including ethanol, saying its development is a “crime against humanity.” [36] The UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) calls this “regrettable,” and UN secretary-general Ban Ki-Moon, called for more scientific research. “Clearly biofuels have great potential for good and, perhaps, also for harm.” [37]

* In 2008, Bill Gates sells most Pacific shares held by Cascade Investment for a loss of $38.9 million.[38]

SOURE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_alcohol_fuel

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The War on Alcohol has been going on since the beginning of this Country! But when they wanted to ban it, they didn’t call it Alcohol, they called it Whiskey and vilified it and those who used it.

Just like the War on Industrial Hemp. When they wanted to Ban it, they didn’t call it Hemp or Industrial Hemp, they called it Marijuana, and vilified it and those who used it.

George Washington reviews the troops near Fort Cumberland, Maryland, before their march to suppress the Whiskey Rebellion in western Pennsylvania.

George Washington reviews the troops near Fort Cumberland, Maryland, before their march to suppress the Whiskey Rebellion in western Pennsylvania.

Whiskey Rebellion
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Date: 1791–1794
Location: primarily Western Pennsylvania
Result: Government victory
Armed Resistance: eliminated
Minor tax evasion
Belligerents
Frontier tax protesters United States United States Commanders and leaders: Unknown, possibly none
United States Commanders and leaders: George Washington – Alexander Hamilton
Casualties and losses:
3–4 killed
170 captured[1] None killed in action; About 12 died from illness or in accidents[2]
2 civilians accidentally killed by government troops

Whiskey Rebellion
The Whiskey Rebellion, or Whiskey Insurrection, was a tax protest in the United States beginning in 1791, during the presidency of George Washington. The rebellion was provoked by the imposition of an excise tax on distilled spirits. Although the tax applied to all distilled spirits, whiskey was by far the most popular distilled beverage in 18th-century America so the excise became widely known as a “whiskey tax.” The new excise was a part of treasury secretary Alexander Hamilton’s program to fund war debt incurred during the Revolutionary War.

The tax was resisted by farmers in the western frontier regions who were long accustomed to distilling their surplus grain and corn into whiskey. In these regions, whiskey was sufficiently popular that it often served as a medium of exchange. Many of the resisters were war veterans who believed that they were fighting for the principles of the American Revolution, in particular against taxation without local representation, while the Federal government maintained the taxes were the legal expression of the taxation powers of Congress.

Throughout counties in Western Pennsylvania, protesters used violence and intimidation to prevent federal officials from collecting the tax. Resistance came to a climax in July 1794, when a U.S. marshal arrived in western Pennsylvania to serve writs to distillers who had not paid the excise. The alarm was raised, and more than 500 armed men attacked the fortified home of tax inspector General John Neville. Washington responded by sending peace commissioners to western Pennsylvania to negotiate with the rebels, while at the same time calling on governors to send a militia force to enforce the tax. With 13,000 militia provided by the governors of Virginia, Maryland, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, Washington rode at the head of an army to suppress the insurgency. The rebels all went home before the arrival of the army, and there was no confrontation. About 20 men were arrested, but all were later acquitted or pardoned.

The Whiskey Rebellion demonstrated that the new national government had the willingness and ability to suppress violent resistance to its laws. The whiskey excise remained difficult to collect, however. The events contributed to the formation of political parties in the United States, a process already underway. The whiskey tax was repealed after Thomas Jefferson’s Republican Party, which opposed Hamilton’s Federalist Party, came to power in 1801.

SOURCE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Whiskey_Rebellion

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How to Make your own ETHANOL – Pt 1 Making Mash

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Make ALCOHOL FUEL

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Continuous Still- Ethanol Alcohol fuel

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Homemade still

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Moonshine Still Reflux Columns & Thumper Kegs 101

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This is Part (3) of our REFUEL AMERICA CAMPAIGN – OPERATION: OFF OIL

PART 1: [ HEMPONAL – HEMP BASED BIOMASS FUELS: “Hemp Fuel—The Way Out of Foreign Oil Dependency!” REFUEL AMERICA CAMPAIGN PT. 1 “Google, Mainstream Media Censorship Level [High/Active]“ ]

PART 2: [ HEMP FOR FUEL NOW! THE BIG OIL SECRET! – TRUTH Vs. MYTHS: REFUEL AMERICA CAMPAIGN PT 2 “All Cars 1985 Or Newer Can Use E100 Hemp Ethanol W/ $200 Or Less Conversion Kit, NOW!” Americans Speak Out! ]

green heart

We still have PART 4: Green Heart Charities and Citizens Fuel Co’Ops and PART 5: Which involves Local and State involvement.

Gas Prices fell an average of .50 cents per gallon with the release of Parts 1 and 2 starting July 6th and August 11 respectively. They are starting to creep up again, so it’s time to put out Part 3 of our Refuel America Off Oil Campaign.

Here’s to Cleaner, Cheaper Fuels for all American’s and the World! time to Target Big Oil like Big Oil targets US

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