According to the Department of Energy, hemp as a biomass fuel producer requires the least specialized growing and processing procedures of all hemp products. The hydrocarbons in hemp can be processed into a wide range of biomass energy sources, from fuel pellets to liquid fuels and gas. Development of bio-fuels could significantly reduce our consumption of fossil fuels and nuclear power.
Hemp Produces the Most Biomass of Any Plant on Earth.
Hemp is at least four times richer in biomass/cellulose potential than its nearest rivals: cornstalks, sugarcane, kenaf, trees, etc.
Hemp produces the most biomass of any crop, which is why it is the natural choice for an energy crop. Hemp converts the sun’s energy into cellulose faster than any other plant, through photosynthesis. Hemp can produce 10 tons of biomass per acre every four months. Enough energy could be produced on 6% of the land in the U.S. to provide enough energy for our entire country (cars, heat homes, electricity, industry) — and we use 25% of the world’s energy.
To put which in perspective, right now we pay farmers not to grow on 6% (around 90 million acres) of the farming land, while another 500 million acres of marginal farmland lies fallow. This land could be used to grow hemp as an energy crop.
The most important aspect of industrial hemp farming, the most compelling thing hemp offers us, is fuel. Right now we are depleting our reserves of petroleum and buying it up from other countries. It would be nice if we could have a fuel source which was reusable and which we could grow right here, making us completely energy independent.
Petroleum fuel increases carbon monoxide in the atmosphere and contributes heavily to global warming and the greenhouse effect, which could lead to global catastrophe in the next 50 years if these trends continue. Do you want to find out if they are right, or do you want to grow the most cost effective and environmentally safe fuel source on the planet?
Using hemp as an energy and rotation crop would be a great step in the right direction.
Hemp Seed Oil
Hemp seed oil has historically been used as lamp oil. It is said to shine the brightest of all lamp oils. Hemp seed oil lit the lamps of Abraham Lincoln, Abraham the prophet, and was used in the legendary lamps of Aladdin.
Anything which can be made from fossil fuels can be made from an organic substance like hemp. Toxic petrochemicals can be replaced with hemp oil.
Hemp oil can be made into anything with an oil base, including paint, varnish, detergent, solvent, and lubricating oil. The advantage of these product is that they are earth friendly and biodegradable, and do not destroy ecosystems around them like petrochemicals do.
Until the 1930s most paint and varnishes were made with non-toxic hemp oil. Hemp paint provides superior coating because hemp oil soaks into and preserves wood, due to its high resistance to water.
Hemp oil is a good base for non-toxic printing inks. Soy is currently made into inks, but soy ink requires more processing and takes longer to dry than hemp oil based inks.
Hemp fuels- Environmentally friendly fuel sources
The basics: Hemp can provide two types of fuel.
1. Hemp biodiesel – made from the oil of the (pressed) hemp seed.
2. Hemp ethanol/methanol – made from the fermented stalk.
To clarify further, ethanol is made from such things as grains, sugars, starches, waste paper and forest products, and methanol is made from woody/pulp matter. Using processes such as gasification, acid hydrolysis and enzymes, hemp can be used to make both ethanol and methanol.
In this day of oil wars, peak oil (and the accompanying soaring prices), climate change and oil spills such as the one in the gulf by BP, it’s more important than ever to promote sustainable alternatives such as hemp ethanol. Hemp turns out to be the most cost-efficient and valuable of all the fuel crops we could grow on a scale that could fuel the world.
And as it turns out, the whole reason for hemp prohibition – and alcohol prohibition – may have been a fuel the realization that OIL production is threatened by any competing fuel source, especially one that requires no modifications to your car!
What is Hemp Biodiesel?
Hemp biodiesel is the name for a variety of ester based oxygenated fuels made from hemp oil. The concept of using vegetable oil as an engine fuel dates back to 1895 when Dr. Rudolf Diesel developed the first diesel engine to run on vegetable oil. Diesel demonstrated his engine at the World Exhibition in Paris in 1900 using peanut oil as fuel. Hemp biodiesel come from the pressing of the hemp seeds to extract the oil. Through a process explained here , hemp biodiesel can be made.
Hemp biodiesel can be made from domestically produced, renewable oilseed crops such as hemp. With over 30 million successful U.S. road miles hemp biodiesel could be the answer to our cry for renewable fuel sources. Learning more about renewable fuels does not mean we should not cut back on consumption but does help address the environmental affects of our choices. There is more to hemp as a renewable fuel source than you know
Why Hemp Biodiesel?
Biodiesel is the only alternative fuel that runs in any conventional, unmodified diesel engine.
It can be stored anywhere that petroleum diesel fuel is stored. Biodiesel is safe to handle and transport because it is as biodegradable as sugar, 10 times less toxic than table salt, and has a high flashpoint of about 300 F compared to petroleum diesel fuel, which has a flash point of 125 F.
Biodiesel can be made from domestically produced, renewable oilseed crops such as hemp.
Biodiesel is a proven fuel with over 30 million successful US road miles, and over 20 years of use in Europe.
When burned in a diesel engine, biodiesel replaces the exhaust odor of petroleum diesel with the pleasant smell of hemp, popcorn or french fries.
Biodiesel is the only alternative fuel in the US to complete EPA Tier I Health Effects Testing under section 211(b) of the Clean Air Act, which provide the most thorough inventory of environmental and human health effects attributes that current technology will allow.
Biodiesel is 11% oxygen by weight and contains no sulfur.
The use of biodiesel can extend the life of diesel engines because it is more lubricating than petroleum diesel fuel, while fuel consumption, auto ignition, power output, and engine torque are relatively unaffected by biodiesel.
The Congressional Budget Office, Department of Defense, US Department of Agriculture, and others have determined that biodiesel is the low cost alternative fuel option for fleets to meet requirements of the Energy Policy Act.
Click here to view one method of making biodiesel with hemp seed oil
I also hear that hemp makes a better paper than trees, and of course, is much more easily renewed as a yearly crop. It yields hugely!
Posted on 5 July, 2012
I’d say it makes good paper. Just pull out your wallet and look at your good old US bills, made out of hemp so as to be resilient. One of them also has an old hemp farmer on the front. George Washington LOL.
Posted on 29 August, 2013
The food based Ethanol and Tobacco Lobbies along with the Religious right will never allow hemp and hemp oils to be used or legalized.
Posted on 22 July, 2012
I am trying to get a hold of 1 – 2 galons of hemp bio-fuel can anyone point me in a good direction. I know the government won’t like it but I believe we can persuade them through flooding the market with inventions and apparatuses that need the fuel. I know most americans are ignorant to the huge power capabilities and uses for the is product. I do not smoke, but do not judge those who do. I also do not believe that it is a gateway drug. Ignorance is a gateway drug. Any help with the Hemp fuel would be great. Vote out Obama and save this country.
Posted on 27 August, 2012
Why is hemp off the biofuel menu?
With recent reports downplaying the possibility of biofuels as a solution to climate change, Giulio Sica wonders why there has been no mention of hemp as an alternative crop
Why has hemp been ignored as a biofuel?
The Royal Society, the European Commission and the UK government have all managed, in the last few days, to take the wind out of the sails of the biofuel industry, publishing reports that suggest biofuels could be causing more harm than good, the crops not being as environmentally friendly as first thought, with the Commons environmental audit committee calling for a moratorium on biofuel targets until more research can be done.
What struck me as astonishing about these reports is that they all managed to ignore the one crop which has been successfully used for many years to create bioethanol and biodiesel, is environmentally friendlier to produce than sugar beet, palm oil, corn or any of the crops mentioned in the report and can grow in practically any temperate to hot climate leaving the ground in better condition than when it was planted.
That plant is hemp.
Last year, the Conservative MP David Maclean tabled a question to the then environment secretary, Ian Pearson, asking what assessment had been made about the potential to grow hemp as a biofuel crop in England. Pearson responded:
Research into the potential of hemp as a biofuel crop suggests it is not currently competitive compared to other sources of biomass. However, hemp does have a number of high-value end uses. For example, as a fibre crop it is used in car panels, construction and as horse bedding. In addition, hempseed oil is used in food, cosmetics and various industrial applications. As a result, there is little interest in this country at present in growing it for biofuel production.
So the government cannot point to ignorance of hemp’s uses, which makes hemp’s omission from any of the recent reports even more perplexing.
The fact that hemp does not need to have land cleared to grow it, grows faster than any of the crops currently used and leaves the ground in a better state when it is harvested should surely be enough for it to be considered a perfect crop to offset the carbon currently produced by fossil fuels and by the less efficient biofuels currently being so roundly criticised by the various official research bodies.
The influential Biodiesel magazine reported last year on the cultivation of hemp as a biofuel and it too could only point to its lack of economic competitiveness (due to its minimal production) as a reason for not seeing it as a viable biofuel. But surely if it was mass-produced, this one drawback could be overcome and its many benefits as an efficient biofuel could be harnessed.
As far as research and implementation of hemp for biofuel, the US is way ahead of Europe and there are a range of websites dedicated to the use of hemp as a fuel for cars.
In the UK, companies such as Hemp Global Solutions have been set up very much with climate change and the reduction of carbon emissions in mind, but there is little, if any, research in this country that has looked into the viability of the hemp plant as a fuel for cars.
So why was there not a single mention of this miracle crop, that, in addition to being able to be used as fuel, can also be used as paper, cloth, converted into plastic and is a rich food source containing high levels of protein?
The Search for Automotive Independence and Sustainable Transport
Automobiles have become an integral part of life over the past century. Unfortunately, the idea of sustainable transport wasn’t considered until more recently. Limited performance models powered by hydro motors and those operating on electricity were quickly forsaken for the power and convenience of gasoline and diesel engines.
The Search for Automotive Independence and Sustainable Transport
This is not the answer to sustainable transport. Photo by: BrockVicky
Why Petroleum Based Fuels Are Not the Answer
According to the American Petroleum Association, spills and leaks from offshore drilling rigs contaminate the oceans with nearly 15 million gallons of oil per year. Oil rigs pose a number of environmental hazards to the water and animals surrounding them, as well as those working on the rigs – not to mention the fact that petroleum is a nonrenewable resource that may or may not be available in the future.
Obviously, our dependency on gasoline is something that must be overcome. The potential of electricity, hydrogen power, and alternative fuels are once again being examined by car manufacturers around the globe – and this time, the future for sustainable transport is bright.
Biofuels and Ethanol – A Quick Fix or a Solution?
The importance of biofuel and biodiesel have been considered for nearly 3 decades, but has seen much more attention since 2006. Several countries have put plans in place to convert fuel use to bio-alternatives within the next few years. These alternative fuel options are much cleaner than petrol-based fuel without the harsh impact and hazards associated with drilling, but ethanol-based biofuels have their share of environmental concerns as well.
ethanol car The Search for Automotive Independence and Sustainable Transport
Photo by Jeffrey Beall
First-generation biofuels typically convert naturally-grown plants into ethanol or vegetable oil – then it is processed into fuel. These crops, and the process of photosynthesis, remove carbons from the air and are thought to decrease greenhouse gas emissions by 20% over conventional fuels.
Biofuel production has seen quite a bit of controversy for a number of reasons, but primarily because corn and grain crops are cultivated strictly for ethanol or vegetable oil production – thus detracting from our global food supply. Increased demand to meet the needs of both food use and ethanol or oil production has created a significant rise in food costs.
The most recent debate over the worth of biofuels may be the greatest concern – recent studies have found that ethanol production for fuel may actually accelerate global warming, causing more harm than good in the long run. Acres and acres of land have been converted from the carbon-reducing forests and grasslands they once were to crops of soy, corn, or sugarcane for biofuel. Scientists estimate that palm oil plantations in Indonesia will require more than 400 years to actually benefit the world.
Beyond First-Gen Biomass Fuels
Corn, sugarcane, soybeans, and other consumable crops are not the only option for biofuel production. Perennial plants cultivated on already degraded farm land is one option currently being examined – the key to sustainable transport is finding a solution that will not alter the natural cycle of the environment.
The possibilities for biomass are seemingly endless – some options may include:
Wood biomass, using mulch and trimmings from preventive plant care – like SunFuel currently under testing by Volkswagen.
Biodegradable algae fuel.
And other strange fuel alternatives.
* ADMIN NOTE: Funny how “They-MSM” mention Human Fat and Dirty Diapers, but leave out Hemp/Industrial Hemp as a Biomass Source. 🙂
* Hemp Produces the Most Biomass of Any Plant on Earth.
* Hemp is at least four times richer in biomass/cellulose potential than its nearest rivals: cornstalks, sugarcane, kenaf, trees, etc.
* Hemp produces the most biomass of any crop, which is why it is the natural choice for an energy crop.
Hybrid and Electric Success
From tax-incentives and reduced bank loan rates to the freedom of driving in any HOV lane regardless of occupancy, hybrid vehicles are thought by many to be one of the biggest advancements in sustainable transport. Today’s hybrids greatly reduce emissions, are much roomier than early models – check out the Lexus RX Luxury Utility Vehicle, and can go much further and faster on a charge. Unfortunately, typical hybrid vehicles still depend on gasoline.
tesla jurvetson The Search for Automotive Independence and Sustainable Transport
The sleek and green Tesla Roadster. Photo by Jurvetson
Advancements in battery technology have paved the way for 100% electric cars, completely independent of nonrenewable fuels. The Tesla Roadster features all the fun and excitement of a luxury sports car – 0 to 60 in 3.9 and a top speed of 125 – for less than 2 cents per mile.
Electric cars may play a big role in the future of sustainable transport but there are still disadvantages that will need to be overcome before electric power is the answer.
The battery that powers hybrids and electric cars pose the greatest threat. Lead batteries are extremely dangerous in accidents while lithium-ion batteries can cause greater fire hazards. Disposing of these toxic components can also create environmental dangers.
Electric cars require charging, just like your laptop and mobile phone. Limited driving around town is ideal, but longer commutes, vacationing, and other drives will require plug-in stations that are currently few and far between.
The Power of Nature Meets Modern Transport
There are many other possibilities currently being tested in the world of transportation. Hydrogen powered vehicles are already on the road but are still quite costly to manufacture and to operate. Solar power is another viable option for the future.
solar car borman818 The Search for Automotive Independence and Sustainable Transport
Solar panels eliminate oil dependency. Photo by Borman818
From the strange and disgusting materials considered for biomass fuel to the natural rays of sunlight needed for solar power, the options available for alternative fuel and sustainable transport are amazing – and there is still so much more to discover as we search for automotive independence. What do you consider to be the most viable option for renewable fuel? What is the most unusual?
Automotive Independence And Sustainable Transport
Vehicles fueled by bioethanol have been in use for many years in North and South America. Today, there is a wide range of bioethanol models and car brands available on the European market.
Flexible Fuel Vehicles, FFVs, are capable of running on a blend of so-called E85 (85% bio-ethanol and 15% petrol), petrol only, or any mix of both in one fuel tank. This makes them truly flexible, both in terms of the choice/availability of fuel, in and customer operation.
The use of bio-ethanol, in combination with FFV technology, can lead to a 70 percent reduction in overall carbon dioxide emissions compared to a traditional petrol engine.
Available FFV Models
Many major car manufacturers are today making ethanol cars a part of their normal production lines. The market is growing and in 2008 almost 79,000 FFVs were sold in the EU.
Sweden had the largest market with a sales of about 60 000 FFV, followed by Germany, Netherlands and France. Across Europe, the market for FFVs is growing steadily. Today a wide range of manufacturers are offering FFV models on the EU market. The FFVs are available in various models ranging from SUVs, light freight vehicles to large and small passenger cars. However, the availability of brands and car models varies considerably within the EU depending on the market development.
Country Available FFV brands (beginning of 2009)
Austria: Ford, Renault, Saab, Volvo
Belgium & Luxembourg: Saab, Volvo
Denmark: Ford, Saab
France: Cadillac, Citroen, Dacia, Ford, Hummer, Jeep, Lotus, Peugeot, Renault, Saab, Volvo
Germany: Ford, Saab, Skoda, Volvo
Ireland: Citroen, Ford, Renault, Saab, Volvo
Italy: Ford, Saab, Volvo
Netherlands: Cadillac, Chrysler, Citroen, Dodge, Ford, Hummer, Mitsubishi, Peugeot, Saab, Volvo
Spain: Citroen, Ford, Peugeot, Renault, Saab, Volvo
Sweden: Audi, Cadillac, Chevrolet, Chrysler, Citroen, Dacia, Ford, Mitsubishi, Nissan, Peugeot, Renault, Saab, Seat, Skoda, Volvo VW
Switzerland: Cadillac, Chevrolet, Chrysler, Citroen, Ford, Renault, Saab, Volvo
United Kingdom: Citroen, Ford, Renault, Saab, Volvo
Total Europe: Audi, Cadillac, Chevrolet, Chrysler, Citroen, Dacia, Dodge, Ford, Hummer, Jeep, Lotus, Mitsubishi, Nissan, Peugeot, Renault, Saab, Seat, Skoda, Volvo VW
Automaker Announces Hemponal Powered Vehicle
March 24, 2012The EditorLeave a commentGo to comments
DETROIT, MI (USA)
GM in attempt to go greener than any of its rivals announced the successful test run of the THC, a car that runs on mixture of traditional gasoline and hemp. GM explained that by using hemp as part of its “Go Green” initiative they plan to put the “High” in Hybrid. Although the car will emit exhaust fumes the only expected consequence is some passersby might experience a craving for Cheese Nachos, Pringles and baked goods. GM said it plans to use the technology for mass transit devices and has already gotten an order from an unnamed city for the vehicle they are calling the “Canni-bus.” The automaker has set a target date of 2014 to release three different sizes of the Hemponal Vehicle: The Cheech, The Chong, and the Snoop DeVille.
Paul Lander is Writer/Prod and Consultant Producer of XM/Sirius’s “Hey, Get Off My Lawn.”
Here is an interesting and enlightening assortment of hemp facts:
1) Hemp is among the oldest industries on the planet, going back more than 10,000 years to the beginnings of pottery. The Columbia History of the World states that the oldest relic of human industry is a bit of hemp fabric dating back to approximately 8,000 BC.
2) Presidents Washington and Jefferson both grew hemp. Americans were legally bound to grow hemp during the Colonial Era and Early Republic. The federal government subsidized hemp during the Second World War and U.S. farmers grew about a million acres of hemp as part of that program.
3) Hemp seed is nutritious and contains more essential fatty acids than any other source, is second only to soybeans in complete protein (but is more digestible by humans), is high in B-vitamins, and is a good source of dietary fiber. Hemp seed is not psychoactive and cannot be used as a drug (learn more at TestPledge.com).
4) The bark of the hemp stalk contains bast fibers, which are among the Earth’s longest natural soft fibers and are also rich in cellulose. The cellulose and hemi-cellulose in its inner woody core are called hurds. Hemp stalk is not psychoactive. Hemp fiber is longer, stronger, more absorbent and more insulative than cotton fiber.
5) According to the Department of Energy, hemp as a biomass fuel producer requires the least specialized growing and processing procedures of all hemp products. The hydrocarbons in hemp can be processed into a wide range of biomass energy sources, from fuel pellets to liquid fuels and gas. Development of bio-fuels could significantly reduce our consumption of fossil fuels and nuclear power.
6) Hemp can be grown organically. Only eight, out of about one hundred known pests, cause problems, and hemp is most often grown without herbicides, fungicides or pesticides. Hemp is also a natural weed suppressor due to fast growth of the canopy.
7) Hemp produces more pulp per acre than timber on a sustainable basis, and can be used for every quality of paper. Hemp paper manufacturing can reduce wastewater contamination. Hemp’s low lignin content reduces the need for acids used in pulping, and its creamy color lends itself to environmentally-friendly bleaching instead of harsh chlorine compounds. Less bleaching results in less dioxin and fewer chemical by-products.
8) Hemp fiber paper resists decomposition, and does not yellow with age when an acid-free process is used. Hemp paper more than 1,500 years old has been found. Hemp paper can also be recycled more times than wood-based paper.
9) Hemp fiberboard produced by Washington State University was found to be twice as strong as wood-based fiberboard. No additional resins are required due to naturally-occurring lignins.
10) Eco-friendly hemp can replace most toxic petrochemical products. Research is being done to use hemp in manufacturing biodegradable plastic products: plant-based cellophane, recycled plastic mixed with hemp for injection-molded products, and resins made from the oil, to name a very few examples. Over two million cars on the road today have hemp composite parts for door panels, dashboards, luggage racks, etc.
Countries Growing Industrial Hemp Today
The U.S. is the only industrialized nation in the world that does not recognize the value of industrial hemp and permit its production. Below is a list of other countries that are more rational when it comes to hemp policy.
AUSTRALIA began research trials in Tasmania in 1995. Victoria commercial production since1998. New South Wales has research. In 2002, Queensland began production. Western Australia licensed crops in 2004.
AUSTRIA has a hemp industry including production of hemp seed oil, medicinals and Hanf magazine.
CANADA started to license research crops in 1994. In addition to crops for fiber, one seed crop was licensed in 1995. Many acres were planted in 1997. Licenses for commercial agriculture saw thousands of acres planted in 1998. 30,000 acres were planted in 1999. In 2000, due to speculative investing, 12,250 acres were sown. In 2001, 92 farmers grew 3,250 acres. A number of Canadian farmers are now growing organically-certified hemp crops (6,000 acres in 2003 and 8,500 acres in 2004, yielding almost four million pounds of seed).
CHILE has grown hemp in the recent past for seed oil production.
CHINA is the largest exporter of hemp textiles. The fabrics are of excellent quality. Medium density fiber board is also now available. The Chinese word for hemp is “ma.”
DENMARK planted its first modern hemp trial crops in 1997. The country is committed to utilizing organic methods.
FINLAND had a resurgence of hemp in 1995 with several small test plots. A seed variety for northern climates was developed called Finola, previously know by the breeder code “FIN-314.” In 2003, Finola was accepted to the EU list of subsidized hemp cultivars. Hemp has never been prohibited in Finland. The Finnish word for hemp is “hamppu.”
FRANCE has never prohibited hemp and harvested 10,000 tons of fiber in 1994. France is a source of low-THC-producing hemp seed for other countries. France exports high quality hemp oil to the U.S. The French word for hemp is “chanvre.”
GERMANY banned hemp in 1982, but research began again in 1992, and many technologies and products are now being developed, as the ban was lifted on growing hemp in November, 1995. Food, clothes and paper are also being made from imported raw materials. Mercedes and BMW use hemp fiber for composites in door panels, dashboards, etc. The German word for hemp is “hanf.”
GREAT BRITAIN lifted hemp prohibition in 1993. Animal bedding, paper and textiles markets have been developed. A government grant was given to develop new markets for natural fibers. 4,000 acres were grown in 1994. Subsidies of 230 British pounds per acre are given by the government to farmers for growing hemp.
HUNGARY is rebuilding their hemp industry, and is one of the biggest exporters of hemp cordage, rugs and fabric to the U.S. They also export hemp seed, paper and fiberboard. The Hungarian word for hemp is “kender.”
INDIA has stands of naturalized Cannabis and uses it for cordage, textiles and seed.
ITALY has invested in the resurgence of hemp, especially for textile production. 1,000 acres were planted for fiber in 2002. Giorgio Armani grows its own hemp for specialized textiles.
JAPAN has a rich religious tradition involving hemp, and custom requires that the Emperor and Shinto priests wear hemp garments in certain ceremonies, so there are small plots maintained for these purposes. Traditional spice mixes also include hemp seed. Japan supports a thriving retail market for a variety of hemp products. The Japanese word for hemp is “asa.”
NETHERLANDS is conducting a four-year study to evaluate and test hemp for paper, and is developing specialized processing equipment. Seed breeders are developing new strains of low-THC varieties. The Dutch word for hemp is “hennep.”
NEW ZEALAND started hemp trials in 2001. Various cultivars are being planted in the north and south islands.
POLAND currently grows hemp for fabric and cordage and manufactures hemp particle board. They have demonstrated the benefits of using hemp to cleanse soils contaminated by heavy metals. The Polish word for hemp is “konopij.”
ROMANIA is the largest commercial producer of hemp in Europe. 1993 acreage was 40,000 acres. Some of it is exported to Hungary for processing. They also export hemp to Western Europe and the U.S. The Romanian word for hemp is “cinepa.”
RUSSIA maintains the largest hemp germplasm collection in the world at the N.I. Vavilov Scientific Research Institute of Plant Industry (VIR) in St. Petersburg. They are in need of funding to maintain and support the collection. The Russian word for hemp is “konoplya.”
SLOVENIA grows hemp and manufactures currency paper.
SPAIN has never prohibited hemp, produces rope and textiles, and exports hemp pulp for paper. The Spanish word for hemp is “cañamo.”
SWITZERLAND is a producer of hemp and hosts one of the largest hemp trade events, Cannatrade.
TURKEY has grown hemp for 2,800 years for rope, caulking, birdseed, paper and fuel. The Turkish word for hemp is “kendir.”
UKRAINE, EGYPT, KOREA, PORTUGAL and THAILAND also produce hemp.
UNITED STATES granted the first hemp permit in over 40 years to Hawaii for an experimental quarter-acre plot in 1999. The license was renewed, but the project has since been closed due to DEA stalling tactics and related funding problems. Importers and manufacturers have thrived using imported raw materials. 22 states have introduced legislation, including VT, HI, ND, MT, MN, IL, VA, NM, CA, AR, KY, MD, WV and ME, addressing support, research or cultivation with bills or resolutions. The National Conference of State Legislators (NCSL) has endorsed industrial hemp for years.
Chris Conrad, “Hemp: Lifeline to the Future”
Jack Frazier, “The Great American Hemp Industry”
Hemptech, “Industrial Hemp” and “Hemp Horizons”